ON word to replace

Possible WSE alternative

Example sentence.

Other options (not exhuastive)

Notes

-ly

-lic

spoke he cwicklic

-licc

The same goes for the word "like", which would also be lic. The words were the same to begin with and only diverged because of norse influence.

ado

todo

Byð ðis muce todo ‘bute noðing.

 

A- in ado is used as an infinitive marker from Norse influence.

again

agen

. . . Agen and agen and agen!

 eft

The g is soft.

against

agenst

Wit stood alone agenst heer hole army

 

The g is soft.

aloft

alift

He held hys cylde alyft

 

Lift (meaning air) is the native cognate of loft.

anger (noun)

wraþ

Wraþ beeþ a deaþly sin

   

anger (verb)

wroþen

Ne wroþenest micc!

Irse

 

angry

er

He was er at me

Ang, Wroþ

Umlaut of wrath above

arrow

flane

ic shot a flane from mine bowe

ear, are, ær

 

athwart (as in across)

þwares

Rite þwares þese hylls

þrew, past, ofer, etc.

 

athwart (as in against)

agenst

Ic be agenst ganghood

   

athwart (as in wrongly)

awry

“Awry goed my goal to lift shot three ahundredþs” -Paul Krugman, as he sees þæt gang bombed to ruins by awroþen selfweelders

See Thwart

See Thwart

awe

ey

ðoe onlookers wer in ei

   

awful

dreadful

A dreadful man was he

   

awkward

unhandy

Þis reckoner is unhandy to work wiþ.

Crindgeworþy. Esp. When dealing with social awkwardness.

Antonym: Handy.

bait

ease

Nice ease. Ic fell for it

   

ban (noun)

forbode

Þere is one forbode on moonshine in þis luff.

 

Archaic word.

ban (verb)

forbid

He was forbidden from þat Minecraft webþew.

 

Meant summon in OE. Meaning of forbid likely from Norse.

bank

staþ

We ate beside þat staþ þes ea.

 

From OE stæþ.

bark (as in tree bark)

rinde

Ic carfed þæt rinde off of þat tree.

   

bask

baþe

Þe shellpad baþed in þæt sun.

 

Bask may be from Norse baðask, but the MED rejects this etymology.

bat (as in the animal)

reremuse

Onen bundel of reremise flew ute of þat shrafe.

 

Bat is likely an alteration of ME bakke.

birth

bird

Its mye birdday today.

 

From OE cognate.

blend (Possibly ON)

mish

Put in one tealapel of sucker and mish well.

maye

 

bloom (as in flower)

blosum

Þoe roses hafe blosum’d.

   

bond (noun)

binding

Þe knite sniþed her bindings.

 

Current meanings of band (originally meaning bond) are from French.

bond (verb)

bind

Two watermotes and one liftmote binde togeþer to make water.

 

In some uses, a paraphrase like make a binding may work instead.

boon

been

Þat rain was one bene to tillmen.

Bene

From native cognate. Rhymes with keen.

booth

stall

Go to þæt Michael Malice stall

   

both

beþos [UNCERTAIN]

~NO EXAMPLE SENTENCE~

baþos, bayþos, baþes, bæþos, etc. as “both these” Or baþ, bayþ, bæþ, boþe, boþo, baþo, bayþo, . . .  as equivalent to both in the sense of “all two”

From OE bā þā, roughly “both these”. May or may not compound. Even if it does, the plural of þis used may vary by case. May be influenced by or influence the number “two” or any part of its inflection

both

       

bound (as in bound for)

heading

'Cam heading for þat lorehuse.

Going (to)

 

broadcast (as in sow over a broad area)

sprindge

 Ic sprindged þis plot wiþ þissen seeds.

sow broadly, broadsow(?)

 

broadcast (in other senses)

send out

Þat news is abute to utesend þat weaþer.

 

Calque of Dutch uitzenden. Noun: sendout. Adjective: sent-out.

bull

far

Grab þæt far by þes horns.

farr

From OE fearr.Bull may be from unattested OE bulla, suggested by OE bulluc (bullock).

call

clepe

Clepe micc bye mye hole name, ewleaper

cleep

PST and PTCP: clept.

carl

curl

'Cam no curl

 

Carl is now dialectal, but it is still used in the historical word housecarl.

C is soft

cast (as in assign a part in a production)

put in

The actress was put in the film as a dancer.

coose

 

cast (as in cast a spell)

utter

utter a firespell

ute, utt

Utter is partly of Middle Dutch origin.

cast (as in cast a vote)

put in

folksleeflyganghood lif’s wen eferbody puts in hys “vote”

   

cast (as in cast metal)

gete

þe blacksmiþ was yeting þat brons

 

From ME geten. PST: gote, PTCP: goten.

cast (as in group of actors)

team

Which actors are in this film's team?

Filmstaff, Filmteam

cast (as in medical cast)

Splint

I had to walk around in a splint for a while.

Forbinding, geetel, getel (both with soft g)

cast (as in mold used for casting)

getel

The model was made with a special yeetle.

 

Gete + -el (suffix showing instrumentality).

cast (as in object made by casting)

geteling

he þrewe þat yeteling at me

 

The meaning has been broadened here, so it can refer to any object.

cast (as in throw)

þrowe

Letteþ he hoo byþ wiþute sin þrowe þæt first stone

 

Also used for cast a glance. May be used to calque oferþrown from MSE Overcast

clip

cut

hye cut his fiþers

cuttings for clippings

 

club (as in association)

Gaþering

Will you join the sports gaþering?

Forone

Forone as calque of German Verein.

club (as in the weapon)

cudgel

He tried to strike me with his cudgel.

   

crawl

claw

se cylde clawed abute on þæt floor

 

From OE cognate.

crook (as in bend)

bend

The witch bent her finger.

   

crook (as in dishonest person)

swiker

The politician said that he was not a swiker.

 

Based on OE swica.

crook (as in staff)

staff

The shepherd used his staff to tend his sheep.

staf

 

crooked (as in bent)

bent

The man did not want to show his bent teeth.

   

crooked (as in dishonest)

swikle

Many people think that politicians are swikle.

 

Based on OE swicol.

cross (as in angry)

wroþ

Be careful. James looks wroth right now.

   

cross (as in cross over)

oferfare

It is hard to overfare to another field of work.

 

We can also use this for the noun crossover.

cross (as in crucifix)

rood

Jesus was nailed to a rood.

 

We can have rood be a verb meaning intersect as well.

cross (as in go across a place)

oferfare

Walk slowly as you overfare the street.

   

cross (as in oppose)

wiþstand

How dare you withstand me?

   

crosswise

roodwise

The food was sliced roodwise.

   

Dane

Den

A few Dens came one day to visit me.

 

From OE cognate. Found in Denmark.

Danish

Denc

I cannot understand a word of Denc.

 

Contracted form found in the surname Dench.

die

cweal

Sam cwole last year in a car accident.

 

PST: quole, PTCP: quolen.

dirt (as filth)

filþ

pigs be filþy deer

   

dirt (as soil)

earþ

he workeþ wiþ þæt earþ

   

drag (as in bore)

duller

Working for a long time must be such a duller.

 

Dull (verb) + -er.

drag (as in draw)

draw

The horses will draw the carriage.

 

Some noun senses may be better conveyed with drawer.

drag (as in hindrance)

hinderer

His speech habits ended up being a hinderer.

   

drag (as in pass slowly)

wear on

The last part of the game simply wore on.

   

dragnet

draynet

The fishermen here use draynets.

 

From ME drai-net.

dream

swefen

Last night, I had a weird sweven.

 

Rhymes with seven. Dream may be native, but simply unattested in OE.

dregs

scum

in Sheelding Þoe Unsheeldingly, lc. Block tryes to show þæt þoe so-clept scum of þæt amone are not needingly always bad for it.

underfilþ

 

egg (noun)

ey

When will the ey hatch?

 

Rhymes with clay. Plural: eyren.

egg (verb)

goad

The throng goaded the man on.

 

hard g

fellow

þoft

He went to the church with three of his thofts.

 

From OE geþofta.

ferry (noun)

fereboat

The fereboat is docked at the port right now.

fareyboat

Based on ferryboat.

ferry (verb)

fere

I fered the men by boat.

farey

From OE ferian. Current form seems to have been from Norse.

flat

feeldy

The surface here is very fieldy.

feeldlike

From ME feldi.

fling (as in rush)

ferk

The moody man ferked out of the room.

 

From ME ferken. We can use this for fling meaning period of enjoyment.

fling (as in throw)

þrowe

I threw the stone at the river.

   

flit

fleet

Last night's events fleeted in my mind.

   

fog

earþclude

the earþclude so þycc ic canne see þrew

   

form

shape

The lion’s shape, so mitey

   

froth (as in foam)

foam

The beer was foaming out of the cup.

   

froth (as in nonsense)

drifel

All the drivel about entertainment is boring to listen to.

   

froward

wayward

He is such a wayward child.

   

gain (prefix)

gen

Critics gensaid the mayor's plan.

 

Gain- found in gainsay. G is soft in the WSE counterpart

gait

way of walking

The man had a strange way of walking.

   

gear

gatow

My fishing yatow is gone.

 

From OE geatwe. Same vowel as in shadow. G is soft

geld

afire

The farmer had to afire the horse.

 

From OE afȳran.

gelding

afired

The afired won yet another competition.

 

Afired horse can be used to refer specifically to gelded horses.

get

get

I will not foryet this any time soon.

 

PST: gat, PTCP: getten. OE cognate only in derivatives. Base get is a rare backformation. G is soft

get (as in become)

becum

It soon became cold.

Worþ(PST: warþ, PTCP: worþen).

 

get (as in obtain)

leet

Leet yourself a job.

get (soft g)

One can use this for obtain if one wants not to use get.

get (as in offspring)

offspring

What will the man pass on to his offspring?

   

get (as in understand)

understand

I'm sorry, teacher, but I still don't understand it.

   

gift

gift

What a wonderful birthday yift!

gifo (soft g)

Soft g

git

gadling

Leave this place at once, you gadling!

   

give

geafe

I have yeaven Emily the watch that you yave me last year.

 

PST: gafe, PTCP: geafen. Give seemed to be a less common variant in ME. Soft g

gosling

goosock

On my way to school, I saw some goosocks.

 

Goose + -ock.

guest

gest

The host warmly welcomed the yest.

   

gun

shooter

he pulled ute hys shooter

 

Gun-related concepts can be distinguished with affixes. Machine gun -> cwickshooter. Accessories -> shooterstop (shooter-stuff)

hap

whate

May the goddess of whate smile upon you.

worþ

“tide” may be norse influence too, so whate can replace it if you choose

happen

worþ

What warþ here last night?

becum, worþ, befall

 

happy

bliþe

I like tales with blithe endings.

   

harrow (as in cause distress)

tray

This has been a rather traying experience.

trey

From ME treien.

harrow (tool)

aiþe

The aithe is drawn by the tractor.

 

From ME aithe. Rhymes with bathe.Harrow is possibly native; the MED traces it to unattested OE hearwe.

haven

harbor

The ship will leave the harbor tomorrow.

 

May be native, but is often said to be a borrowing.

hit

strike

She struck the table in frustration.

strice

 

hung (past participle of hang)

hangen

I have hangen the picture on the wall.

   

hung (past tense of hang)

hing

I hing a picture on the wall yesterday.

 

See here for more details about hung.

husband (noun)

were

My were often goes to the bar.

weer

Counterpart to wife. Found in werewolf.

husband (verb)

speal

I want to speal my energy.

speel

From ME spelen.

husbandman

acreman

I saw many acremen working in the fields.

   

husbandry (as in conservation)

spealing

He ought to be commended for his spealing.

speeling

 

husbandry (as in farming)

earþtilþ

The folk here practice animal earthtilth.

   

ill (as in evil)

efil

I would never do him evil.

   

ill (as in harmful)

harmful

Fortunately, this potion has no harmful effects.

   

ill (as in hostile)

unkind

Many people had unkind feelings about the businessman.

   

ill (as in ill afford)

hardly

I can hardly afford to pay for all this.

   

ill (as in poor)

arm

Because of his arm judgment, he has lost most of his wealth.

   

ill (as in sick)

sick

The man has recovered from his sickness.

   

keel (as in fall over)

fall ofer

A strong wind caused the boat to fall ofer.

   

keel (nautical)

bottomtree

Something struck the ship's bottomtree.

bautree, bottom, shipsbottom

From obsolete nautical word. Bottom or ship's bottom may also work.

ken

know

Do you know that man?

 

Ken meant cause to know in OE. Meaning of know likely from Norse.

kettle

cettle

The pot should not call the chettle black.

 

soft c

kid (as in child)

cilde

you're only a child, so leave me alone.

gungling (youngling)

soft c

kid (as in young goat)

goatock

The goatock fled upon hearing a loud noise.

 

Based on goatling.

kindle

lite

Find some branches to light a fire.

   

knife

sax

The man was stabbed with a sax.

 

Generally said to be a borrowing.

law

ew

It is important to know what your country's eas are.

ea

 

leg

shank

The man's shanks were very hairy.

 

Shank referring to part of a leg is now footshank from OE fōtsceanca.

lift

heafe

Could you help me heave this thing?

 

Some noun senses may be better shown with heaver.

likely

liefly

How liefly is it that the coin will land on heads?

 

From OE gelēaflic.

ling (diminutive suffix)

ock

The townsfolk often go to that hillock.

 

Found in hillock. Pronounced /ək/.

link

tie

He is the weakest tie of the group.

   

loan (noun)

lean

You shall pay back your lean soon.

 

From OE cognate.

loan (verb)

lend

The earl lent the man some of his money.

   

loft (as in upper room)

sollar

Many things are stowed in my sollar.

 

From OE solor. Lived on in some dialects as sollar.

loft (verb)

send up hie

The ball was sent up high over the fence.

   

lofty (as in elevated)

uphie

She had very uphigh ideals in mind.

hie

From OE uphēah.

lofty (as in haughty)

prideful

You should drop your prideful attitude.

 

Highmoody from OE hēahmōd + -y may work as well.

loose

unfast

Be careful, for the ropes are rather unfast.

 

Fast means firm, tight, secure here. Loosen is then unfasten.

low

neþer

I live in the nether parts of this land.

 

Comparative is nethermore, and superlative nethermost.

lower (verb)

neþer

I carefully nethered the statue.

 

From ME netheren.

meek

sheepish

Tom always looked like a sheepish man.

   

nay/yea

ne/gea

If you disagree with me, say no.

no/ge

g is soft. Ea as in sea

odd (as in fifty-odd)

-ish

He has never seen something like this in fiftyish years.

   

odd (as in mismatched)

mismatched

Why are you wearing mismatched socks?

   

odd (as in occasional)

unoften

They had a few unoften moments together.

 

Here, the adverb has been turned into an adjective.

odd (as in odd number)

uneven

How many uneven numbers are shown here?

   

odd (as in remaining)

leftover

I do not wish to be the leftover man out.

   

odd (as in strange)

weerd

He is such a weerd man.

   

outlaw (noun)

wolfshead

Many wolfsheads have been seen wandering nearby.

 

From the phrase wolf's head.

outlaw (verb)

forbid

The government has forbidden the use of this chemical.

   

outskirt

uter edge

Many poor people live on the city's outer edges.

   

perhaps

maybe

Maybe it will rain later.

   

race (as in racecar)

rease

This will be given to the winner of the rease.

 

From OE rǣs. Rhymes with fleece.

rag (as in old cloth)

tattick

I was bidden to wipe the floor with a mere tattick.

 

From OE tættec.

raise

rear

Rear your hand if you agree.

   

reindeer

roan

Rudolph is a red-nosed roan.

 

From OE cognate.

reskin

geave a new hide

We yave the car a new hide.

 

The noun could be a new formation like newhide.

rive

rend

The political party is rent by ideological conflicts.

   

root (as in tree root)

more

The love of money is the more of all evil.

   

rotten

rotted

The apple is fully rotted.

 

Rot is from OE, but rotten is a borrowing.

sale

selling

How many sellings have you made so far?

   

same

ilk

I am of the ilk profession as Sam is.

 

Modern ilk is a misinterpretation of the word in Scottish use. Like works better in that context

scant (verb)

stint

You must not stint on the details.

   

scant, scanty

geason

Evidence for his theory is rather geason.

 

hard g

scare (noun)

frite

There has been a recent fright over food.

   

scare (verb)

friten

The children are frightened by the dark.

   

scathe

shaþe

He fled the building unshathed.

 

From OE cognate.

Scot

Shot

Judging by his accent, that man looks to be a Shot.

 

Unpalatalized variant seems to have been due to Norse influence.

scrape

shrape

I have shraped my knee.

 

From OE cognate.

seek

seec

seecest trewþ

sece

Seek may not necessarily be Norse influence, but seec is an available and provably willsome alternative and you can them interchangably or make an innovative distinction.

seem

look

From what I can tell, everything looks to be all right.

   

seemly

becoming

That suit does not look becoming on you.

   

sheer

shire

Your words are nothing but shire nonsense.

 

Sheer likely a mix of Norse skere and native shire.

sister

suster

I have two susters.

 

From ME variant.

skep

hive

A specially made hive is shown on the shelf.

   

skill

craft

Cooking requires much craft.

craftiness

 

skilled

crafty

Alfred is very crafty in cooking.

   

skin (as in become covered with skin)

grow new hide

Your wound will soon grow new hide.

   

skin (as in cover with skin)

geave hide

Geave hide to the wound.

   

skin (as in remove skin)

flay

Carefully flay the swine.

   

skin (as in scrape)

shrape

It must have been painful when you shraped your knee.

   

skin (as in swindle)

fleese

Are you trying to fleece me?

   

skin (noun)

hide

There is a spider crawling on my hide.

 

Fell can be used to refer specifically to animal skin.

skirt (as in avoid)

forbowe

You must not forbowe the issue any longer.

 

From OE forbūgan. Rhymes with now.

skirt (as in edge)

edge

There is a house on the forest's edges.

   

skirt (as in go around)

go abute

He chose to go about the city.

   

skirt (as in lie along an edge)

edge

There are some trees that edge the river.

   

skirt (as in the clothing)

gore

The lady's gore was pretty to look at.

 

Meaning taken from ME.

skull

brainpan

Pirates' flags often show brainpans.

   

sky

heaven

A bright blue heaven stretched above us.

   

slaughter (noun)

slaut

He was found guilty of manslaught.

slot

Found in onslaught.

slaughter (verb)

slaye

Many innocents were slain in the war.

   

sleight

cunning

I tricked the man with cunning of hand.

   

sling (as in throw)

þrowe

I threw a few things into my backpack.

   

sling, slingshot

liþer

The man was attacked with a lither.

 

From ME lither. Rhymes with slither. Sling may be from Middle Low German.

sly

cunning

Foxes are generally thought to be cunning animals.

   

snipe

snite

The hunter has gone out to hunt some snites.

 

We can then translate sniper as sniter.

stack

rick

The thief leapt into the hayrick.

   

staithe

wharf

A ship full of coal arrived at the wharf.

 

OE cognate meant bank, shore.

stoup

steap

I dipped my hands in the steap.

 

From OE cognate.

swain

wooer

The wooer won the lady's heart.

   

take

nim

Let me nim that off your hands.

fang

PST: nam, PTCP: num.

tatter

tattick

I saw a man wearing tatticked clothes.

 

From OE tættec.

teem (as in pour down)

geet

The rain began to yeet down on us.

 

From ME geten. PST: gote, PTCP: goten.

tether (noun)

sole

The cow lies down by its sole.

 

From OE sāl.

tether (verb)

seal

The man sealed his horse to a nearby tree.

 

From OE sǣlan.

though

þaw

þow byþ it dærk, ic ne be ‘fraid

þaff

Based on an ME variant. Rhymes with draw.

thrall

þew

The man became a thew to his desires.

 

Enthrall may be something like bethew.

thrift

spealing

Spealing is a quality that men ought to have.

 

Based on speal.

thrifty

spealsome

It is good to be spealsome with one's money.

 

Based on German sparsam.

thrive

þee

Because of its mines, the country has þeed greatly.

 

The verb thee is pronounced /θi/.

thrust

shofe

The man had shoved his hands into the bag.

   

thursday

þundersday

byþ þunderday,

 

Not necessarily unwillsome, Þundersday is definitely willsome, so if you wish to avoid unwillsomehood, it is still an open choice.

thwart (as in bench of a boat)

þoft

This boat has three thofts.

 

Dialectal word.

thwart (as in prevent)

stop

The knight managed to stop the evil wizard.

   

tight

fast

The ropes are a little too fast.

 

Fast means firm, tight, secure here. Tighten is then fasten.

till, until

He waited in the park oth midnight.

   

to and fro

back and forþ

It's tiresome to walk back and forth

   

trust

trow

For now, I will trow you.

   

ugly

unsightly

He had a rather unsightly appearance.

   

viking

wicing

þoe wicings waded on angly

   

wand

rod

Begin the spell with your magical rod.

   

want (as in desire)

list

I list to rest right now.

 

as in listless

want (as in lack)

gead

This house is in gead of repair.

 

From OE gǣd. Hard g

weak

woke

He is woke both physically and mentally.

 

From OE wāc. Weaken and weakling are then woken and wokeling.

whirl

wharftle

I wharftled around upon hearing a strange noise.

 

From OE hwearftlian.

window

eyedoor

The glass eyedoor was broken for some reason.

 

From OE ēagduru.

wing

fiþer

I wondered at the magical bird's fithers.

 

From OE fiþere.

wrong

wow

Your answer to the question is wough.

wau

Rhymes with now.